Hydraulic turbine, which are generally known as a water turbine used to convert hydraulic energy or we can say that energy of water (kinetic and pressure energy of water)  into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is further used to drive a generator which converts it into electrical energy. The basic concept of this type of turbine is that water flowing from a dam generates a pressure force while passing through the turbine. This pressure force use to rotate the turbine, which further rotate the generator and convert hydraulic energy into .

Working Principle

As per Newton’s law a power is specifically corresponding to the adjustment in force. So if there is any adjustment in energy of liquid a power is created. In the pressure driven turbine cutting edges or basin (if there should arise an occurrence of Pelton wheel) are given against the stream of water which change its force. As the energy is changing a subsequent weight drive created which pivot the rotor or turbine. The most imperative marvel is the measure of progress in energy of water, which is straightforwardly corresponding to drive. As the adjustment in force high the power created is high which increment the vitality transformation. So the cutting edge or containers are structured so it can change the most extreme energy of water. This is the essential rule of the turbine. These turbines are utilized as hydroelectric power plants.



1- According to Type of Energy Available at Inlet

Impulse Turbine

An impulse turbine is those turbines, which are use drive, vitality or we can say motor vitality of water to turn the turbine. In this kind of water driven turbine all weight head or weight, vitality is changed over into speed head or active vitality at the bay of turbine by utilizing spout. This fast water stream strikes the cutting edge or pail of turbine which build up a power which pivot it. Just dynamic vitality changes at the bay and outlet of the turbine and the weight of water stay same. This sort of turbine is known as drive turbine. There are different plans accessible of motivation turbine yet the Pelton wheel most suited for it. These are commonly high head and low release hydraulic turbine.

Reaction Turbine

As the name infers these turbines is utilized weight vitality of water to pivot the turbine. In for all intents and purposes no turbine can simply utilized weight vitality. So it utilized the two its weight vitality and active vitality. These turbines turn halfway because of drive activity and mostly because of weight change over the sprinter edges. The water stream over cutting edges secretive the two its dynamic vitality and in addition weight vitality into power and turn the turbine. The adjustment in weight vitality of water known as level of response of the turbine. So it is known as response turbine. They are commonly low head, high release turbine.

2- According to Direction of Flow

Tangential Flow Turbine

In this pressure driven turbine the water course through digression of sprinter. The water stream strikes the sprinter digressively and pivots the turbine. Model Pelton wheel turbine

Radial Flow Turbine

In this kind of turbine the water streams spiral way. This is subdivided into two sorts. The first is known as internal outspread stream in which the water streams from outskirts to the inside. Model Francis turbine. Second one is known as outward stream spiral turbine in which water stream towards outskirts from focus.

Axial Flow Turbine

In this hydraulic turbine, the water flow from the axis of turbine. Example Kaplan turbine.

Mixed Flow Turbine

When the water enters the turbine radically and exit axially or vice versa, it is known as a mixed flow turbine.

3- According to Head of Water Available at Inlet

High Head Turbine

In the event that the water level or water supply is over 150 – 2000 m from the hub of turbine, it is known as high head turbine. It is most appropriate for motivation turbine.

Medium Head Turbine

On the off chance that the water level differs from 30 – 130 m from the hub of the turbine, it is known as a medium head turbine. Precedent Francis Turbine

Low Head Turbine

On the off chance that the water level is beneath 30 meter from the pivot of turbine, it is known as low head turbine. These pressure driven turbine required high release rate to work productively. Precedent Kaplan turbine.

4- According to Specific Speed of Turbine

Low Specific Speed Turbine

In the event that the explicit speed is under 50 the turbine is considered as low explicit speed turbine. Precedent Pelton wheel

Medium Specific Speed Turbine

In the event that the explicit speed is between 50 – 150, it is considered as medium explicit speed turbine. Model Francis Turbine

High Specific Speed Turbine

In the event that the explicit speed of turbine is over 250 it is known as

high explicit speed turbine. Model Kaplan Turbine

Points of interest and Disadvantages

Hydro control plant or we can say that water powered turbines are generally utilized frame the most recent decades. It is a productive sustainable power source. There are numerous up and downs in each task so there are additionally have numerous favorable circumstances and drawbacks which are portray underneath.


1- It is a sustainable power source. Water vitality can be utilized over and over.

2- The running expense of turbine is less contrast with other.

3- It has high proficiency.

4- It very well may be control completely. The door of dam is shut when we needn’t bother with power and can be open when we required.

5- Dams are utilized from long time so it very well may be utilized for power age.

6- It doesn’t contaminate condition.

7- It is anything but difficult to keep up.

8- The dam built for water powered turbine can turn into a visitor put.


1- beginning expense is high. It takes quite a few years to end up productive.

2- It can devastate the regular habitat at site. Substantial dam cause huge geographical harms.

3- It can create at just couple of destinations where legitimate measure of water is accessible.

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