On the basis of ground/soil condition
1- Shallow foundations are preferred where soil close to the surface is capable of supporting structure loads.
2- Where the ground close to the surface is not capable of supporting structural loads, hard strata is searched for and the deep foundation is required.
3- Uniform stable ground requires relatively shallow foundation whereas filled up ground has low bearing capacity thus requires a deep foundation.
On the basis of Loads from Building
1- In the case of a low-rise building in a larger area, the extent of loading is relatively low, so shallow foundation can resist the load from the structures.
2- In the case of the high-rise building built within less area have high loads. Therefore, the deep foundation is required as a shallow foundation may not be able to resist such loads of greater intensity.