Here’s what to consider when designing
- Accessible entrance and adequate front door
- Ramps at adequate heights
- Handrails on accessible stairs
- Accessible elevator
- Accessible toilet
- Safe floor surface
Public buildings must have an accessible entrance that is at least 91.4 cm wide so that a wheelchair or a person with crutches can pass through it without hindrance. If the building has two entrances, at least one should be accessible, and it doesn’t have to be the main entrance, but signs and directions to the entrance should be posted. It is not recommended to install turnstiles at the main entrances either, but if they must be installed for safety reasons, then a separate entry must be made for people with disabilities, wheelchairs, and aids.
Ramps at adequate heights
Ramps should follow the 1:12 ratio law, so for every 2.5 cm, there should be 30.4 cm of the ramp. It should also be 91.4cm wide, similar to the entrance. In addition, ramps should be installed. They must not be portable/mobile, as such ramps are unstable and can be dangerous for people with motor limitations. The slope of the ramp must be smooth, at least 122 cm long and 91.4 cm wide.
Accessible handrails on stairs
Although it is not necessary for every 2-story building to have elevators if they offer services to people with disabilities and if they need to climb to the second floor then at least accessible stairs with accessible handrails should be provided. Each step must be 10-17.8 cm high and must be the same along the entire staircase. The depth of each step must be at least 28 cm. The handrail must be stable and firm, with a slight slope of 86-96.5cm from the edge of the stairs. It must have a slightly inclined extension equal to the depth of the step at the bottom and a 30cm horizontal extension at the top. The ideal diameter is 3-5cm for easy grip, and at least 3.8cm from the wall.
A one- or two-story building smaller than 278.7 square meters per floor does not have to have an elevator. This policy does not apply to:
- Two-story health centers
- Transport stations
- Airport terminals
Shopping centers or shopping centers with more than 5 floors
Public facilities with at least 3 floors and an area greater than 278.7 square meters on any floor should have an elevator. Elevators must have an opening of at least 91.4 cm wide and only need to be at least 203 cm wide and 129.5 cm deep in which a person with a wheelchair can make a 360° turn. The door must also wait at least 3 seconds before closing.
You should also have a re-opening device that will open the door in case something gets in between the door, but without contact with a person or object. The device should detect an obstacle at least 12.7 cm and 73.7 cm from the floor. It should also remain active for at least 20 seconds before closing again. The horizontal space between the tunnel and the elevator must not exceed 3cm, with an acceptable vertical space of 1.27cm. The buttons outside the elevator should be 106.7cm above the floor. If there are up and down buttons, then the center button should be the starting point.
Each floor must have an accessible toilet and an entrance with directions and signs. The sign should be at least 122 to 152 cm above the surface next to the door, along with the Braille text. Restrooms should be close to an accessible entrance.
Safe floor surface
Materials such as concrete, tile, and asphalt provide a non-slip floor sufficient for wheelchairs and shoes. The floor should be:
Etisons are allowed but must have a maximum height of 1.27cm. The transition from carpet to tiles should not be higher than 0.64. They must be firmly glued to the floor and must not wrinkle.