We know generally, Columns are axially loaded members in the structure. It carries compression force due to the gravity loads of the structure. Column fails for different reasons. There are mainly three types of failures that occur in columns.
Compressive failure is a failure that occurs due to developed compressive stress more than allowable stress. It occurs for the material itself crushing or yielding not the column. Shorter and wider column normally fails under compression failure.
Three factors are responsible for this issue. Number one is loading, number two is compressive strength, and number three is the cross-sectional area of the column.
Buckling failure occurs in a long column (slender columns) where the columns displace laterally or horizontally. Increasing the slenderness of the column decreases load-carrying capacity in such a way that the column tends to buckle laterally or horizontally at the mid-zone of its length
Shear force tends to produce sliding failure on a material along a plane that is parallel or slightly parallel (diagonal) to the direction of the force. When the shear force exceeds the shear capacity of the column then this failure occurs.
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