The density of a material is defined as material mass per unit volume and designated by the symbol ρ (rho). The SI unit of density is kg / m3 and U.S. customary unit of density in lb/ft3. Density is an important characteristic property of a material and varies with temperature and pressure. Room temperature density values for some of the common materials including aluminium, steel, bronze, iron, brass, concrete, copper, gold, silver, invar, magnesium, nickel, timber, titanium and zinc are given in the following materials density chart.

##### Density is defined as the ratio of mass to volume

p = m/v

Units = kg/m3 or lb/ft3

Conversion: 1 kg/m3 = 0.624 lb/ft3

##### Density Values of Different Construction Materials

If two different materials are the same in weight, but their density of both may be different. Lower dense material occupies more volume than higher dense material. Density also decides the sinking property of the material. It is decided by knowing the density of the liquid. If the material has a lower density than liquid, then it will float on the surface of the liquid. If it is denser than the liquid, it will sink.

For example, water has a density of 1000kg/m3, if we place bamboo wood (350kg/m3) on the water it will float on water surface similarly if we drop a brick (1700 kg.m3) it will sink into the water. The density value of construction material will also help to find out the quantity of material needed for a particular space.

###### Unit weight or density of different construction materials are tabulated below.
 S.No. Construction Materials Density (Kg/m3) Density (lb/ft3) 1 Water 1000 62.43 Wood (various types) 2 Balsa 170 10.6 3 Bamboo 300 – 400 18.7 – 25 4 Pine 370 – 530 23 – 33 5 Cedar 380 23.7 6 Aspen 420 26.2 7 Willow wood 420 26.2 8 African mahogany 495 – 850 31 – 53 9 Honduras mahogany 545 34 10 American red wood 450 28 11 European red wood 510 31.8 12 Spruce (Canadian) 450 28 13 Spruce (Sitka) 450 28 14 Afromosia 705 44 15 apple 660 – 830 41.2 – 51.8 16 Ash (black) 540 33.7 17 Ash (white) 670 41.8 18 Birch 670 41.8 19 Ebony 960 – 1120 59.9 – 69.9 20 Elm 600 – 815 37.4 – 50.8 21 Iroko 655 40.9 22 Larch 590 36.8 23 Maple 755 47.1 24 Oak 590 – 930 36.8 – 58 25 Teak 630 – 720 39.3 – 44.9 26 Sycamore 590 36.8 27 Lignam vitae 1280 – 1370 79.9 -85.5 28 Sandy soil 1800 112.3 29 Clay soil 1900 118.6 30 Gravel soil 2000 124.8 31 Sandstone 2000 124.8 32 Silt 2100 131 33 Chalk 2100 131 34 Shale 2500 156 35 Sedimentary rocks 2600 162.3 36 Metamorphic rocks 2700 168.5 37 Igneous rocks (felsic) 2700 168.5 38 Igneous rocks (mafic) 3000 187.2 39 Bricks 1500-1800 93.64 -112.3 40 Asphalt 721 45 41 Cement 1440 89.8 42 Cement mortar 2080 129.8 43 Lime 640 39.9 44 Lime mortar 1760 109.8 45 Concrete (P.C.C) 2400 149.8 46 Concrete (R.C.C) 2500 156 47 Steel 7850 490 48 Stainless steel 7480 – 8000 466.9 – 499.4 49 Aluminum 2739 170.9 50 Magnesium 1738 108.4 51 Cobalt 8746 545.9 52 Nickel 8908 556.1 53 Tin 7280 454.4 54 Lead 11340 707.9 55 Zinc 7135 445.4 56 Cast iron 7208 449.9 57 Copper 8940 558.1 58 Iron 7850 490 59 Glass 2580 161