There are several sorts of foundations dependent on a number of factors. The isolated footing is one of the most common and basic forms of foundations used across the world. The foundation is critical to the structure. The foundation eventually transfers the whole load of the structure to the earth. Because they are simple and cost-effective, isolated footings are the most widely utilized footings for Reinforced cement concrete columns. A solitary column is supported by an isolated footing. Isolated footings are individual footings given for each column.

When using this type of footing,

1. Columns are not closely spaced.

2. Loads on footings are less.

3. The Safe bearing capacity of the soil is generally high.

The Isolated footings essentially consist of a bottom slab. There are three basic types of bottom slabs are

1. Pad footing (with uniform thickness)

2. Stepped footing (with nonuniform thickness)

3. Sloped footing (trapezoidal section)

Reinforcement detailing of isolated footing include

1- Concrete cover of Reinforcements 

According to IS 456-200, the minimum thickness to main reinforcement in footing should not be less than 50 mm if the footing is in contact with the earth’s surface directly, and 40 mm for the externally exposed faces such as surface leveling PCC. If surface leveling is not used, then it is required to specify a cover of 75 mm to cover the uneven surface of the excavation.

2- Minimum reinforcement and bar diameter

Minimum reinforcement shall not be less than 0.12 percent of the total cross-sectional
area. The minimum diameter for the main reinforcement should not be less than 10 mm.

3- Reinforcement Distribution in Footing

In one-way RCC footing, the reinforcement is distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing. In two-way square footings, the reinforcement extending in both directions is distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing. But in the case of two-way rectangular footings, reinforcement is distributed across the full width of the footing in a long direction. However, for short direction, the reinforcement is distributed in the central band as per the calculations below. The rest reinforcement in the short direction is distributed equally on both sides of the central band.

Reinforcement in central band/Total reinforcement in short direction= 2/(x/y)+1

Where y is the long side and x is the short side of the footing.

4- Dowel reinforcement 

Dowel reinforcement is used to tie the isolated footing to the above column. with regard to dowel reinforcement development length, the development length of dowel bars into the column and the isolated footing shall be provided and clearly shown in the design drawings.

5- Lap splice

The splice length of the dowel and column reinforcement shall be clearly shown. Anchorage of both flexural and dowel reinforcement lengths shall be checked to prevent bond failure of the dowels in the footing and to prevent failure of the lap splices between the dowels and the column bars.

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